Today, rabbits have become record holders for breeding at home due to their fertility and precocity. In addition, their meat is very dietary. Therefore, it is very important to know all the details of their cultivation.
Meat, skins, down and fertilizer – products that can be obtained by breeding rabbits. This occupation is less expensive than, for example, growing pigs or cows. Throughout the year, a healthy female reproduces offspring 6 times. The result will be more than 25 calves and close to 70 kg of meat when they grow up.
The biological features of rabbits
Three rabbits in a cage
The rabbit is a rodent mammal belonging to the Zaitsev family. Domestic crawl descended from the wild South European. By mating a domestic and wild rabbit you can get good offspring. Crossing a rabbit with a hare is impossible, because they have different biological features.
The cubs can do without the help of the rabbit at 3-4 weeks of life. They begin to use food themselves, without ceasing to drink milk. The time that the rabbits spend in the mother liquor depends on the amount of milk from the mother. Milkiness can be determined by the appearance of the young. If they have smooth skin, without folds, they lie quietly, then the milkiness is high. The highest happens after 4 genera.
Reduce milkiness can obesity and low physical activity of the animal. Obese female can not get pregnant. To avoid this problem, it is necessary to revise its nutrition: to increase the amount of greenery, to limit the use of grain and feed. And give more space so she can move.
They see rabbits much worse than smells. If the rabbit to throw someone else’s cub, then she will determine it by smell, despite the color. She will not accept any stranger. Rabbits also get used to the new fodder for a long time sniffing.
Breeding rabbits at home
The rabbit gnaws exclusively vegetable food, therefore it has a peculiar structure of teeth. He has molars and incisors that grow all his life. Fangs in an animal are absent. The incisors are covered in front with an enamel ball, and in the process of eating the food they are sharpened.
The digestive system in rabbits is well developed. The stomach is voluminous and has a high digestibility of food due to the high acidity of gastric secretions. Food may be in the stomach of an animal for 3-10 hours. The rabbit intestine is 10 times longer than the length of the animal (up to 6 meters).
Another feature of rabbits is that they eat their nightly excrement. They have a large amount of protein and vitamin B. So the rabbits have adapted to replenish the required trace elements by the body.
Growth and development of rabbits
Young babies are born blind, and after 10 days they are already able to see. Pooh in baby rabbits appears on day 7. Completely they are covered with full-fledged wool closer to a month. Then they start eating on their own.
Replacement of milk teeth with permanent ones occurs from the 18th day. By the month it ends. Rabbits shed all year. In the first month – the first, in 4 months – the second, in 7.5 – the third. In addition, seasonal moults occur.
At birth, the cub has a weight of 40 – 60 g, and after 2 days it is twice as large. A month later, he has already increased 10 times. This is due to the high content of beneficial components in the rabbit’s milk.
After 3-5 months, the mass of a healthy rabbit becomes 2-3.5 kg. The most accelerated growth occurs between 3 and 4 months of life.
The rabbits have a gentle ridge and thin tubular bones of the limbs. This feature leads to injury, especially baby rabbits. Damage to the spine or paw fracture can paralyze a rabbit.
On average, a rabbit lives 8 years. For divorce, the animal can be used for a maximum of 4 years.
The content of rabbits in the cage
Even before the rabbits appear, they already need to be taken care of. Advance is to take care of the organization of the room for cultivation, the necessary equipment.
Keep the young need to be in a cage that is convenient to clean, it should be dry and light. Adults should live outdoors in closed cages with compartments for food and drinkers. From time to time it is necessary to clean the room where the rabbits live.
Keeping the rabbits outdoors is good for their health. Their immunity is strengthened, they are less susceptible to disease. In winter, it is better not to keep them outdoors, as temperature readings below –20 ° C can lead to frostbite of animals and freezing of wet food.
Types of cells, see their size.
How to make a cage for rabbits with their own hands, read by clicking on the link.
We recommend to get acquainted with, Nikolai Ivanovich developed his own cages, which have become used by many rabbit breeders.
Preparation for reproduction
The essence of preparation for mating is the selection of healthy rabbits with high milkiness to it. Individuals that eat baby rabbits are taken from the herd.
If there are many rabbits, then all information about them is difficult to keep in mind. To do this, on each cage it is better to nail the plate with the date of birth of the rabbit, and from what parents she was born. This information is important in preventing mating of related individuals. It is necessary to record dates of matings, the number of pups, including stillborn. On the plate of the male, too, make all the necessary entries (date of birth, parents, whether the rabbit eats).
Male and female, which are designed for mating, must have good fatness. Weakly well-fed females poorly fertilize, and the young are born weak and develop slowly. In order for underweight animals to become well-fed, 3 weeks before mating, they are fattened with oats, hay, and bran with potatoes. But individuals with obesity become less active in the genital area and poorly fertilized. They, on the contrary, need to reduce the amount of feed.
A pregnant female needs to be well fed. Food should be the same as in the diet of an ordinary rabbit, only the quantity is greater.
Before preparing rabbits for mating, all individuals with defects are rejected. One male is assigned to 8 females.
Characteristics of reproduction in rabbits
Seasonal breeding in rabbits does not exist. They can produce offspring all year round. An unfertilized rabbit exhibits signs of sexual hunting every 5-6 days. In summer, estrus lasts about 9 days, in winter – about 6. During the hunt period, females have poor appetite, they are in an excited state. In case of 3-9 ovules out of each ovary. The number of calves at the age of 6-12 can be. After a day or two after birth, the female can already be fertilized.
Male sperm cells are produced in the testes. When the testes are drawn into the abdominal cavity, if they have not descended into the scrotum, the rabbit is considered sterile. During mating, the male produces up to 1.5 cm3 of sperm. In the genital tract of the rabbit sperm is active no more than 24 hours.
The first mating in rabbits is best done at 4-6 months after birth. Previously it is not recommended not to harm the health of parents and their future offspring.
Cages for young
The cage for the young should consist of 2 compartments: the first is for walking, the second is as a refuge where the animal enters through the manholes. Flooring should be mesh with cells 18×18 mm. You can make it wooden rails. Feeders, troughs and nurseries are placed in the cage. The roof can be made shed. On the front wall, height 60-70 cm, on the back – 30-40cm.
For growing young stock on skins, the cage design may differ. Its dimensions reach 3×0.7m. It is divided by a wooden partition in half. In each half, keep 12 individuals up to 3.5 months of age of the same sex, age and weight. Then they make more partitions so that each rabbit has a separate compartment. The width of each 25 cm. In such compartments contain animals until slaughter.
When circling and in the period of growing the pups, the queen is placed in the cage to the female; its dimensions are 50x30x27 cm. The dimensions of the loophole are 18×18 cm. The uterus should be easily removed from the cage, which makes it possible to easily inspect the little rabbits. It also saves a constant temperature. The cover of the mother liquor should also be easily removed and fixed by constipation so that the female could not open it.
It is necessary to provide for the possibility of warming the floor in winter.. To do this, put a special film with built-in heaters of low power. You can install a temperature control sensor. If not, then the floor must be warmed up with caution, since an excessive temperature rise can lead to the death of the young.
Rabbit mating cages
The cage intended for mating must be disinfected and cleaned in advance. From it you need to remove the feeder, water bottle and other items. Mostly mating is carried out in the morning on the territory of the male. If you place it in the female’s cage, it will take a long time to develop the territory, which will delay the mating procedure.
When the male rolls off the rabbit to the side or back and hums, the mating can be considered successful. It is necessary to make an appropriate note in the notebook about mating time, and what kind of male it was produced.
Feed the rabbits need to be balanced so that they can produce good offspring, meat and wool. Rabbit can eat during the day continuously. At first it is better to feed the animal with ready-made feed, in which all the necessary trace elements are balanced..
In summer, the basis of the diet is greenery – branches, foliage, grass, etc. Especially useful for rabbits are branches of fruit trees, acacia, birch, willow. You can also give tops of garden crops. The animal loves bitter and fragrant herbs: wormwood, chicory, dill. In addition, they protect against worms and improve appetite. For young, dried garlic stalks are recommended for the prevention of stomatitis and gastrointestinal diseases.
Rich in vitamins nettle, which is collected before flowering and dried in the shade. It is recommended to give as the first spring greens. Since it can sting the animal, it must first be mashed and chopped. Also, young willow branches are useful as they protect against diarrhea. They are fed rabbits before moving to the greens.
In winter and in the early spring period, bunnies are given fortified supplements., which are contained mainly in root vegetables. This is especially important for nursing rabbits. Rowan berries are rich in vitamins.
See the recommendations of experts.
In late autumn, rabbits can eat vegetable tops, dry flower stalks. At the beginning of November, when the green leaves, the animals are transferred to mineral feed in pellets. During this period, the rabbits are fattened, giving a lot of feed and feed grain.
In winter, tree branches can be added to feed hay. They are half in the diet replace hay. Grain can be replaced with potato peel or grain waste.
It should also be borne in mind that rabbits hardly adapt to new food. Therefore, they need to be taught to her gradually, over time, increasing the dose.
Annual need for feed per adult rabbit
To determine the annual need for rabbits in feed, you need to consider a number of factors:
- feeding time in summer and winter;
- the number of okrols per year;
- age of young stock sales (slaughter, sale or replenishment of the herd);
- live weight of rabbits;
- diet in different seasons.
The average number of feeds per year in kilograms for adults:
- rough: for female 35-40, for male 23-35;
- juicy: for female 50-60, for male 40-50;
- green: for female 200-250, for male 150-160;
- concentrated feed: for female 35-35, for male 22-25.
Vaccinated rabbits at home
To eliminate possible infections, rabbits are vaccinated. The most frequent diseases and. They are not treated and in almost 100% of cases are fatal. Against them necessarily. Before you need to make sure that the animal is completely healthy, otherwise it may not survive the vaccination. In addition, it is necessary to carry out prevention from worms. To do this, use means that are harmless to the body of the rodent: Parazitsid-suspension or Dirofen-paste.
Inoculate a rabbit
The vaccinated rabbit maintains immunity against infection for 6–9 months. The best age for vaccination is the seventh week of life, when rabbits tolerate the procedure most easily. Body weight must be greater than 0.5 kg. It is better not to carry out vaccination for a pregnant or lactating female.
A vaccinated rabbit should be isolated from others for 2 weeks so as not to catch the infection from the sick animal. After this time, the risk of infection disappears. Feeding remains the same, you only need to increase the amount of water.
Conditional vaccination scheme:
- the first (from viral hemorrhagic disease) is held in 45 days;
- the second (from myxomatosis) after 14 days;
- the third (repeated from myxomatosis) after 3 months (not earlier) from the previous one;
- the fourth (from viral hemorrhagic disease) 14 days after the third.
Repeated vaccinations are carried out throughout the life of rabbits every six months. Alternately making vaccination for myxomatosis, and after 2 weeks from viral hemorrhagic disease.
We recommend watching the video on raising rabbits at home, here you will get valuable answers to many questions.
How to make your own hands at home cage for rabbits photo